Table of contents

Inline documentation

In this section you will:

  • Place some code in a module.
  • Provide inline documentation (a “docstring”).


As a concrete example, let’s suppose we have a simple function that encodes Snell’s Law. Perhaps this function currently lives in a Jupyter notebook or a .py file in an email attachment. We want to put into some more lasting, maintainable, reusable, and/or shareable form.

Here is the code:

# contents of

import numpy as np

def snell(theta_inc: float, n1: float, n2: float) -> float:
    Compute the refraction angle using Snell's Law.


    theta_inc : float
        Incident angle in radians.
    n1, n2 : float
        The refractive index of medium of origin and destination medium.

    theta : float
        refraction angle

    A ray enters an air--water boundary at pi/4 radians (45 degrees).
    Compute exit angle.

    >>> snell(np.pi/4, 1.00, 1.33)
    return np.arcsin(n1 / n2 * np.sin(theta_inc))

Notice that this example includes inline documentation — a “docstring”. This is extremely useful for collaborators, and the most common collaborator is Future You! It also includes type hints; this tells a programmer, type checker, or IDE what types are expected in an out of the function.

Further, by following the numpydoc standard, we will be able to automatically generate nice-looking HTML documentation later. Notable features:

  • At the top, there is a succinct, one-line summary of the function’s purpose. It must one line.

  • (Optional) There is an paragraph elaborating on that summary.

  • There is a section listing input parameters, with the structure

    parameter_name : parameter_type
        optional description

    Note that space before the :. That is part of the standard.

  • Similar parameters may be combined into one entry for brevity’s sake, as we have done for n1, n2 here.

  • There is a section describing what the function returns.

  • (Optional) There is a section of one or more examples.

We will revisit docstrings in the section on writing documentation.