We will cover binary wheels on the next page, but if you do not have a compiled extension, this is called a universal (pure Python) package, and the procedure to make a “built” wheel is simple. At the end of this page, there is a recipe that can often be used exactly for pure Python wheels (if the previous recommendations were followed).
Why make a wheel when there is nothing to compile? There are a multitude of reasons that a wheel is better than only providing an sdist:
- Wheels do not run
setup.py, but simply install files into locations
- Lower install requirements - users don’t need your setup tools
- Faster installs
- Safer installs - no arbitrary code execution
- Highly consistent installs
- Wheels pre-compile bytecode when they install
- Initial import is not slower than subsequent import
- Less chance of a permission issue
- You can look in the
.zip, really) and see where everything is going to go
name: CD on: workflow_dispatch: release: types: - published jobs:
This will run when you manually trigger a build (
workflow_dispatch), or when you publish a release. Later, we will make sure that the actual publish step requires the event to be a publish event, so that manual triggers (and branches/PRs, if those are enabled).
If you want tags instead of releases, you can add the
on: push: tags: "v*" key instead of the releases - however, please remember to make a GitHub release of your tag! It shows up in the GUI and it notifies anyone watching releases(-only). You will also need to change the event filter below.
You can merge the CI job and the CD job if you want. To do that, preferably with the name “CI/CD”, you can just combine the two
dist: runs-on: ubuntu-latest steps: - uses: actions/checkout@v4 with: fetch-depth: 0 - name: Build SDist and wheel run: pipx run build - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v3 with: path: dist/* - name: Check metadata run: pipx run twine check dist/*
By default this will make an SDist and a wheel from the package in the current directory, and they will be placed in
./dist. You can only build SDist (
-s), only build wheel (
-w), change the output folder (
-o <dir>) or give a different input folder if you want.
You could use the setup-python action, install
pip, and then use
python -m build or
pyproject-build, but it’s better to use
pipx to install and run python applications. Pipx is provided by default by GitHub Actions (in fact, they use it to setup other applications).
We upload the artifact just to make it available via the GitHub PR/Checks API. You can download a file to test locally if you want without making a release.
We also add an optional check using twine for the metadata (it will be tested later in the upload action for the release job, as well).
There is an all-in-one action that does all the work for you for a pure Python package, including extra pre-upload checks & nice GitHub summaries.
steps: - uses: actions/checkout@v4 - uses: hynek/build-and-inspect-python-package@v1
The artifact it produces is named
Packages, so that’s what you need to use later to publish.
And then, you need a release job:
publish: needs: [dist] environment: pypi permissions: id-token: write runs-on: ubuntu-latest if: github.event_name == 'release' && github.event.action == 'published' steps: - uses: actions/download-artifact@v3 with: name: artifact path: dist - uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1
When you make a GitHub release in the web UI, we publish to PyPI. You’ll just need to tell PyPI which org, repo, workflow, and set the
pypi environment to allow pushes from GitHub. If it’s the first time you’ve published a package, go to the PyPI trusted publisher docs for instructions on preparing PyPI to accept your initial package publish.
This can be used on almost any package with a standard
.github/workflows/cd.yml recipe. This works because
pyproject.toml describes exactly how to build your package, hence all packages build exactly via the same interface:
name: CD on: workflow_dispatch: push: branches: - main release: types: - published jobs: dist: runs-on: ubuntu-latest steps: - uses: actions/checkout@v4 with: fetch-depth: 0 - uses: hynek/build-and-inspect-python-package@v1 publish: needs: [dist] environment: pypi permissions: id-token: write runs-on: ubuntu-latest if: github.event_name == 'release' && github.event.action == 'published' steps: - uses: actions/download-artifact@v3 with: name: artifact path: dist - uses: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@release/v1